With tabots while dawn

Every week, Inside Africa takes its viewers on a journey across Africa, exploring the true diversity and depth of different cultures, countries and regions. Follow host Errol Barnett on Twitter and Facebook.
Gondar, Ethiopia (CNN) — France has Lourdes, India has the Ganges. Ethiopia, meanwhile, has Gondar.
Situated about 450 miles north of Addis Ababa, encapsulated by hills and tall trees, and dotted with 17th-century relics from the citys glory days (when it was the countrys capital), Gondar today can seem somewhat remote. During the religious festival of Timket, however, the city is inundated with pilgrims who come to re-enact the baptism of Jesus in the River Jordan, and take a dip in the holy waters at the historical Fasilides Bath.

 Click on map to enlarge.

Click on map to enlarge.

Nearly two thirds of Ethiopias 94 million population is Christian, and the majority of those belong to the Orthodox church. For them, Timket — celebrating the Epiphany — is among the most important occasions of the year. Its is a two-day affair that begins with a procession of tabots, holy replicas of the Ark of the Covenant — the sacred chests described in the Book of Exodus as carrying the stone tablets on which the 10 Commandments were written.
The tabots are wrapped in cloth and placed on the heads of Ethiopian Orthodox Christian priests, who parade the streets en route to the bath. The priests, clad in ceremonial robes, are escorted by drums and by the clapping and singing of worshipers, who hold an overnight vigil until dawn.

There are services the following morning which culminate in the priests blessing the waters of the historic bath, while onlookers crowd every nook surrounding the bath — some getting a pristine view from nearby trees.
When the priests are done, the mood turns jubilant, and the spectators rush to jump into the pool.

The water is now sacred, and the sick shall be cured
Ezra Adis, head priest

The water is blessed in the name of the Holy Trinity … in the name of God. The water is now sacred, and the sick shall be cured, explains Ezra Adis, the head priest at the local Medhanelem Church.
That is why the young people who jump in first get excited; it is a spiritual love, he adds.
Read this: Ethiopias churches built by angels
The plunge is so swift that some participants get battered in the process — though most are unperturbed by a few scratches.

Awaiting daybreak during Timket

Holy water wash away sins

I jumped from high above, boasts one man who dived into the waters from one of the nearby trees.
I was apprehensive, he adds. The branches could give way and you could fall on the rock edge of the pool, and there was a possibility I could have lost my life, but at this moment, I am doing what I feel good about, and that possibility of death doesnt scare me.
The Timket festival dates back to the 16th century, but it was marked only in churches until the baptismal ceremonies were introduced, explains Bantalem Tadesse Tedla, a historian at the University of Gondar.
The baptisms, usually held on January 19, are celebrated differently in other parts of the country. There are three options for Timket, says Tedla. To be immersed, to collect water from three pipes and pour it on people, or to collect water and sprinkle it — it depends on the availability of water.
In Gondar, the first is implemented, because of the existence of this very important building, he adds, referring to the stone bath — a UNESCO world heritage site built in 1632 for King Fasil (Fasiledes).
As the afternoon winds down, people begin to leave the pool and head back to the streets, but the festivities arent quite over. Each tabot is now paraded back to its respective church with crowds of onlookers eager to get one last look at them.
Back at the churches, its a different, quieter scene. Congregants fill the church grounds to listen in on a final service, and after a closing prayer its time to send the tabot back inside the church to its resting place.
The locals will eventually return to their homes for a special feast, but in the meantime, the celebrations on the streets of Gondar continue — a chance for orthodox Christians to celebrate and come together for one of the most sacred and festive days of the year.
Read more: Mysterious stone kingdom of Great Zimbabwe
Read more: Cameroon: The next tourism hotspot?

Million dream share stadium

Follow us at #FCBayern celebrate their 2-0 win in London with the travelling #FCBayern fans. #AFCFCB pic.twitter.com/JwIB7aZuU5— FC Bayern English (@FCBayernEN) February 19, 2014
That is not our will, Rummenigge says when asked about poaching from rival clubs.
Our will is where you find the best players in the German Bundesliga. In England its not different that the big clubs like Chelsea, Manchester United are interested especially in players from Arsenal, from Liverpool and so on. I believe that is the normality of the business.
Read: Bayern honors president persecuted by Nazis
Such is the talent at Bayern that Pep Guardiola, who took over from treble-winning coach Jupp Heynckes at the end of last season, was able to name Germany internationals such as Bastian Schweinsteiger and Thomas Muller as substitutes for last weeks 2-0 win at Arsenal in the Champions League.
Already 19 points clear at the top of the Bundesliga, unbeaten in 47 league games, Bayern looks set to win a record 24th championship without much hassle.
Arjen Robben celebrates after scoring Bayern Munichs third in the 5-0 rout of Eintracht Frankfurt at the Allianz Arena.
Thiago Alcantara makes one of his Bundesliga record 185 touches in the comprehensive victory for Bayern.
Thiago congratulates defender Dante after he scored Bayerns fourth goal in the victory over Frankfurt.
Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain scored a second half double as Arsenal went back to the top of the English Premier League in beating Crystal Palace 2-0.
Bayern and Arsenal on top
Bayern and Arsenal on top
Bayern and Arsenal on top
Bayern and Arsenal on top
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Bayern and Arsenal on top
For the ninth straight year Real Madrid are ranked as the worlds richest club with a total revenue of $702 million. Their global reach allows the Spanish club to make millions in commercial revenue, both domestically and internationally, thanks to marketable stars like Cristiano Ronaldo — recently crowned the worlds best player.
Barcelona are second in the list, $47 million behind Real, and can also generate huge sums commercially on the back of players like Lionel Messi. The Argentina striker is their talisman and has helped them to win the Spanish league title four times in the last five years.
No-one could hold a candle to Bayern Munich in terms of silverware in 2013, the German champions winning an incredible five titles, including the European Champions League. They have usurped Manchester United in third spot and recorded a 17% growth in revenue to hit $585m.
English champions Manchester United fell to fourth in the money list — the first time theyve been outside the top three in 17 years. Despite revenue growing to $574 million they were overtaken by Bayern, and fortunes on the pitch have wavered since former manager Alex Ferguson left the club in May after 27 years at the helm.
The stature of French champions Paris Saint-Germain as a European force under their Qatari owners was evidenced by their ability to attract big stars like Sweden striker Zlatan Ibrahimovic. They nudged their way into the top five after almost quadrupling their revenue since the 2010/11 season — the highest ever placing by a French side.
Manchester City leapfrogged Arsenal and Chelsea to become the second richest English Premier League club in the list. City, owned by Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed al Nahyan from Abu Dhabi, saw their total revenue rise to $428.3 million.
Chelsea, led by Portuguese manager Jose Mourinho, drop two places to seventh in the 2014 list. Backed by Russian billionaire owner Roman Abramovich, the London club actually saw a drop in revenue, from $437 million to $411 million.
Arsenal currently sit top of the English Premier League as they go in search of a first trophy since 2005. They flexed their muscles in the transfer market with the purchase of Germany international Mesut Ozil, at a cost of $70 million and saw a small drop in revenue, to $385m.
Juventus have cemented their place as the dominant force in Italian football by winning the last two Serie A titles. Their move to a new stadium in 2011 helped boost revenue and they made the most money out of the European Champions League in 2013 despite only reaching the quarterfinals. They saw a big rise in total revenue to $369 million.
AC Milan, who can boast star names like Italy striker Mario Balotelli among their ranks, dropped two places to tenth in Deloittes list after a modest rise in revenue saw them record $357m overall.
Borussia Dortmund — champions of Germany in 2011 and 2012 — lost to Bayern Munich in the European Champions League final in May last year and are set to lose star striker Robert Lewandowski to their rivals at the end of this season. They saw a significant hike in revenue up from $266.4 million to $347.1 million.
English club Liverpool, led by Uruguayan striker Luis Suarez, dropped out of the top ten for the first time since 1999/2000 despite seeing a 9% rise in revenue to $325.9 million. The club havent qualified for the lucrative European Champions League since 2009.
German club Schalke move up two places from last years list, after their revenue went up to 268.5 million.
Tottenham Hotspur are the sixth English Premier League club to feature in Deloittes list. They stay in 15th spot with a revenue of $233 million.
Italian giants Inter havent secured any silverware since 2011 and they drop four places from last years rich list. Revenue fell by $43 million to $228.6 million overall.
Turkish champions Galatasaray move up three places from the 2013 list after revenue rose to $212.6 million. The Istanbul-based outfit have Ivory Coast striker Didier Drogba and Dutch playmaker Wesley Sneijder in their ranks and will face Chelsea — with whom Drogba won the 2012 European Champions League crown — in the last 16 of the competition.
Hamburg are the fourth German team in the list. They moved up three places with a revenue of $183.4 million.
Fenerbahce join fellow Turkish side Galatatsaray in the top 20, making it the first time since 2005/06 that two clubs outside the recognized top five in Europe — Spain, Italy, Germany, England and France — have appeared. Their revenue grew to $171.2 million.
Italian club Roma, led by their talisman Francesco Totti, are another new entry to the list thanks to revenue of $168.5 million.
Atletico Madrid, city rivals to Real, are currently second in the La Liga table behind Barcelona — largely thanks to the goalscoring exploits of Diego Costa. They are another new entry to round off the list but trail way behind Real in terms of revenue, on the comparatively modest figure of $162.5 million.
Footballs Rich List: 1. Real Madrid
2. Barcelona
3. Bayern Munich
4. Manchester United
5. Paris Saint-Germain
6. Manchester City
7. Chelsea
8. Arsenal
9. Juventus
10. AC Milan
11. Borussia Dortmund
12. Liverpool
13. Schalke 04
14. Tottenham Hotspur
15. Internazionale
16. Galatasaray
17. Hamburg SV
18. Fenerbahce
19. AS Roma
20. Atletico Madrid
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Footballs Rich List
Mesut Ozil wasted a glorious opportunity to give Arsenal an early lead after his penalty was saved by Bayern Munich keeper Manuel Neuer.
Bayerns David Alaba also missed from the penalty spot after Arsenal keeper Wojciech Szczesny was shown a straight red card for a foul on Arjen Robben. Alaba could only hit the post as the teams went in goalless at the interval.
Toni Kroos produced a moment of magic to finally break the resistance of 10-man Arsenal with a stunning curling effort which flew into the top corner.
Thomas Muller headed home a late second to wrap up an impressive first leg victory at Emirates Stadium.
Diego Costa headed home an 83rd minute winner as Atletico Madrid claimed a 1-0 victory at AC Milan.
On the spot
Pay the penalty
Kroos control
Muller time
Deadly Diego
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Bayern eases past Arsenal
Sundays 4-0 victory over Hannover — its 14th successive league win — means only an absolute disaster can prevent Bayern from coasting to a successful title defense, making Dortmunds two-season reign seem long ago.
Even more impressive is that Bayerns fans can enjoy this success while paying prices which English Premier League counterparts could only dream of.
Bayerns 225,000 members hold an 82% share of the club, and Rumenigge has made football accessible to all supporters with some season tickets available for just over $200.
Indeed, the low-cost deals offered by all Bundesliga teams are the envy of many within the European game.
Bayern, the 2013 Club World Cup champion, is seeking to extend its dominance and will reportedly open the clubs first overseas office in New York from April 1 to help break into the North American market.
Guardiolas team will begin a U.S. tour in late July, including a match against the Major League Soccer All-Star lineup.
Read: Ballack says Bayern and Dortmund dominance bad for Bundesliga
Under the guidance of the Spaniard, the possibilities appear endless for Bayern — a heavy favorite to become the first team to retain the European title since the advent of the Champions League in 1992.
It makes Bayerns acquisition of the former Barcelona coach even more frightening for those who are trying to compete within the same sphere.
From the very first meeting, I had a feeling that he was something special, Rummenigge said of Guardiola.
Hes different. Obsessed by football in a very, very nice and good way. When I talked to our players six months ago they said this guy doesnt stop our success story. This guy brings us ahead.
If they move any further ahead, then the others will only look on with fear.
Read: Rummenigges warning over 2022 winter World Cup switch

who manager dutch stadium

Follow us at #FCBayern celebrate their 2-0 win in London with the travelling #FCBayern fans. #AFCFCB pic.twitter.com/JwIB7aZuU5— FC Bayern English (@FCBayernEN) February 19, 2014
That is not our will, Rummenigge says when asked about poaching from rival clubs.
Our will is where you find the best players in the German Bundesliga. In England its not different that the big clubs like Chelsea, Manchester United are interested especially in players from Arsenal, from Liverpool and so on. I believe that is the normality of the business.
Read: Bayern honors president persecuted by Nazis
Such is the talent at Bayern that Pep Guardiola, who took over from treble-winning coach Jupp Heynckes at the end of last season, was able to name Germany internationals such as Bastian Schweinsteiger and Thomas Muller as substitutes for last weeks 2-0 win at Arsenal in the Champions League.
Already 19 points clear at the top of the Bundesliga, unbeaten in 47 league games, Bayern looks set to win a record 24th championship without much hassle.
Arjen Robben celebrates after scoring Bayern Munichs third in the 5-0 rout of Eintracht Frankfurt at the Allianz Arena.
Thiago Alcantara makes one of his Bundesliga record 185 touches in the comprehensive victory for Bayern.
Thiago congratulates defender Dante after he scored Bayerns fourth goal in the victory over Frankfurt.
Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain scored a second half double as Arsenal went back to the top of the English Premier League in beating Crystal Palace 2-0.
Bayern and Arsenal on top
Bayern and Arsenal on top
Bayern and Arsenal on top
Bayern and Arsenal on top
HIDE CAPTION
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Bayern and Arsenal on top
For the ninth straight year Real Madrid are ranked as the worlds richest club with a total revenue of $702 million. Their global reach allows the Spanish club to make millions in commercial revenue, both domestically and internationally, thanks to marketable stars like Cristiano Ronaldo — recently crowned the worlds best player.
Barcelona are second in the list, $47 million behind Real, and can also generate huge sums commercially on the back of players like Lionel Messi. The Argentina striker is their talisman and has helped them to win the Spanish league title four times in the last five years.
No-one could hold a candle to Bayern Munich in terms of silverware in 2013, the German champions winning an incredible five titles, including the European Champions League. They have usurped Manchester United in third spot and recorded a 17% growth in revenue to hit $585m.
English champions Manchester United fell to fourth in the money list — the first time theyve been outside the top three in 17 years. Despite revenue growing to $574 million they were overtaken by Bayern, and fortunes on the pitch have wavered since former manager Alex Ferguson left the club in May after 27 years at the helm.
The stature of French champions Paris Saint-Germain as a European force under their Qatari owners was evidenced by their ability to attract big stars like Sweden striker Zlatan Ibrahimovic. They nudged their way into the top five after almost quadrupling their revenue since the 2010/11 season — the highest ever placing by a French side.
Manchester City leapfrogged Arsenal and Chelsea to become the second richest English Premier League club in the list. City, owned by Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed al Nahyan from Abu Dhabi, saw their total revenue rise to $428.3 million.
Chelsea, led by Portuguese manager Jose Mourinho, drop two places to seventh in the 2014 list. Backed by Russian billionaire owner Roman Abramovich, the London club actually saw a drop in revenue, from $437 million to $411 million.
Arsenal currently sit top of the English Premier League as they go in search of a first trophy since 2005. They flexed their muscles in the transfer market with the purchase of Germany international Mesut Ozil, at a cost of $70 million and saw a small drop in revenue, to $385m.
Juventus have cemented their place as the dominant force in Italian football by winning the last two Serie A titles. Their move to a new stadium in 2011 helped boost revenue and they made the most money out of the European Champions League in 2013 despite only reaching the quarterfinals. They saw a big rise in total revenue to $369 million.
AC Milan, who can boast star names like Italy striker Mario Balotelli among their ranks, dropped two places to tenth in Deloittes list after a modest rise in revenue saw them record $357m overall.
Borussia Dortmund — champions of Germany in 2011 and 2012 — lost to Bayern Munich in the European Champions League final in May last year and are set to lose star striker Robert Lewandowski to their rivals at the end of this season. They saw a significant hike in revenue up from $266.4 million to $347.1 million.
English club Liverpool, led by Uruguayan striker Luis Suarez, dropped out of the top ten for the first time since 1999/2000 despite seeing a 9% rise in revenue to $325.9 million. The club havent qualified for the lucrative European Champions League since 2009.
German club Schalke move up two places from last years list, after their revenue went up to 268.5 million.
Tottenham Hotspur are the sixth English Premier League club to feature in Deloittes list. They stay in 15th spot with a revenue of $233 million.
Italian giants Inter havent secured any silverware since 2011 and they drop four places from last years rich list. Revenue fell by $43 million to $228.6 million overall.
Turkish champions Galatasaray move up three places from the 2013 list after revenue rose to $212.6 million. The Istanbul-based outfit have Ivory Coast striker Didier Drogba and Dutch playmaker Wesley Sneijder in their ranks and will face Chelsea — with whom Drogba won the 2012 European Champions League crown — in the last 16 of the competition.
Hamburg are the fourth German team in the list. They moved up three places with a revenue of $183.4 million.
Fenerbahce join fellow Turkish side Galatatsaray in the top 20, making it the first time since 2005/06 that two clubs outside the recognized top five in Europe — Spain, Italy, Germany, England and France — have appeared. Their revenue grew to $171.2 million.
Italian club Roma, led by their talisman Francesco Totti, are another new entry to the list thanks to revenue of $168.5 million.
Atletico Madrid, city rivals to Real, are currently second in the La Liga table behind Barcelona — largely thanks to the goalscoring exploits of Diego Costa. They are another new entry to round off the list but trail way behind Real in terms of revenue, on the comparatively modest figure of $162.5 million.
Footballs Rich List: 1. Real Madrid
2. Barcelona
3. Bayern Munich
4. Manchester United
5. Paris Saint-Germain
6. Manchester City
7. Chelsea
8. Arsenal
9. Juventus
10. AC Milan
11. Borussia Dortmund
12. Liverpool
13. Schalke 04
14. Tottenham Hotspur
15. Internazionale
16. Galatasaray
17. Hamburg SV
18. Fenerbahce
19. AS Roma
20. Atletico Madrid
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Footballs Rich List
Mesut Ozil wasted a glorious opportunity to give Arsenal an early lead after his penalty was saved by Bayern Munich keeper Manuel Neuer.
Bayerns David Alaba also missed from the penalty spot after Arsenal keeper Wojciech Szczesny was shown a straight red card for a foul on Arjen Robben. Alaba could only hit the post as the teams went in goalless at the interval.
Toni Kroos produced a moment of magic to finally break the resistance of 10-man Arsenal with a stunning curling effort which flew into the top corner.
Thomas Muller headed home a late second to wrap up an impressive first leg victory at Emirates Stadium.
Diego Costa headed home an 83rd minute winner as Atletico Madrid claimed a 1-0 victory at AC Milan.
On the spot
Pay the penalty
Kroos control
Muller time
Deadly Diego
HIDE CAPTION
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
>
>>
Bayern eases past Arsenal
Sundays 4-0 victory over Hannover — its 14th successive league win — means only an absolute disaster can prevent Bayern from coasting to a successful title defense, making Dortmunds two-season reign seem long ago.
Even more impressive is that Bayerns fans can enjoy this success while paying prices which English Premier League counterparts could only dream of.
Bayerns 225,000 members hold an 82% share of the club, and Rumenigge has made football accessible to all supporters with some season tickets available for just over $200.
Indeed, the low-cost deals offered by all Bundesliga teams are the envy of many within the European game.
Bayern, the 2013 Club World Cup champion, is seeking to extend its dominance and will reportedly open the clubs first overseas office in New York from April 1 to help break into the North American market.
Guardiolas team will begin a U.S. tour in late July, including a match against the Major League Soccer All-Star lineup.
Read: Ballack says Bayern and Dortmund dominance bad for Bundesliga
Under the guidance of the Spaniard, the possibilities appear endless for Bayern — a heavy favorite to become the first team to retain the European title since the advent of the Champions League in 1992.
It makes Bayerns acquisition of the former Barcelona coach even more frightening for those who are trying to compete within the same sphere.
From the very first meeting, I had a feeling that he was something special, Rummenigge said of Guardiola.
Hes different. Obsessed by football in a very, very nice and good way. When I talked to our players six months ago they said this guy doesnt stop our success story. This guy brings us ahead.
If they move any further ahead, then the others will only look on with fear.
Read: Rummenigges warning over 2022 winter World Cup switch

And experiences street

Editors note: African Voices is a weekly show that highlights Africas most engaging personalities, exploring the lives and passions of people who rarely open themselves up to the camera. Follow the team on Twitter.
London, England (CNN) — As she took to the stage, both judges and spectators alike were unsure what the young Egyptian woman would do. Standing before the mic, dressed head to toe in a soft pink ensemble complete with a matching veil, Mayam Mahmoud was about to perform in front of an audience for the first time. Then, a hard-hitting beat began to blare out of the speakers and the 18-year-old started to rap.
Since her captivating appearance on popular TV talent show Arabs Got Talent last October, the young veiled hip-hop artist has amassed a huge following for challenging how women in Egypt are meant to behave. Her lyrics highlight the importance of girls education and denounce sexual harassment of women on the streets of Egypt.

It was never about going on stage in a scarf, says Mahmoud. It was about going on stage and sharing a message, she adds. Egyptian women undergo harassment and bullying on a daily basis.
Award-winning
Last week Mahmouds inspiring work for womens rights was recognized at the prestigious Index Freedom of Expression awards. The young singer, who won this years Arts category, sat down with CNN before the ceremony to explain how she is tackling Egypts sexual harassment of women head on.
These are matters that are very present in Egypt but no one is talking about them — they are a big problem in Egyptian society, she explains. Its about going out there and explaining your experience and sharing that with others so we know these problems exist and that is the way of changing views.

Bandele on Half of a Yellow Sun

The rise of Lupita Nyongo

Surgeon treats kids with ailing hearts

Hip-hop as a genre of music is where people have an avenue to express what they feel, the problems they go through … There is less of an emphasis on the performance itself but rather on what is actually being said.
Having grown up in a traditionally conservative, patriarchal society, Mahmouds feminist rhymes resonate with many of her fans who encourage her to continue combating gender discrimination through her music.
She raps in one of songs: Who said that femininity is about dresses? Femininity is about intelligence and intellect.
I defy that
Women in Egypt routinely face instances of sexual harassment — according to a 2008 survey of 1,010 women conducted by the Egyptian Center for Womens rights, 83% of Egyptian women and 98% of foreign women have been sexually harassed.
Mahmoud describes how women can feel self conscious simply for walking to school or work. Shell get looks and it can degenerate into touching. Another thing that commonly happens is that a woman can be walking in the street and she could be followed by a car. It could also degenerate to people hitting her from within the car or getting out of the car while saying all sorts of things to her.
[These incidents] do not encourage her to leave her house anymore. It supports that idea that a woman should stay at home and not go out and Im completely against that. I defy that.
Carnival of Freedom
The rapper, who is also an undergraduate studying politics and social science, also spends much of her time speaking to women who share their stories of daily discrimination with her. With their permission, Mahmoud then incorporates those experiences into her music.

Egyptian women undergo harassment and bullying on a daily basis.
Mayam Mahmoud, hip-hop musician and feminist

There is a lot of recent interest in womens rights in Egypt. People are more responsive at the moment and are becoming more interested in what I have to say. Because of this I set up a Facebook event called Carnival of Freedom and the whole point is to show or post day-to-day activities that are otherwise considered taboo in Egyptian culture.
So for example, [it could be] women playing football or going to a cafe, playing pool or eating in the street. Essentially this is to keep encouraging men and women to be part of this natural need to enjoy ones self and express ones self with freedom.
For the time being, Mahmoud will continue to split her days between university and her passion for rapping. She acknowledges that shes young and is still trying to work out exactly what path to take. But she hopes her raps will continue to inspire others to change the way they think and treat others in Egyptian society.
One of the strongest messages Id like to send is, Freedom is an obligation on others before it becomes my right.
READ THIS: Capturing the new Rwanda
READ THIS: How do you mend a childs broken heart?
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READ THIS: Hollywood filmmaker Sanaa Hamri on mentors

Residents earthquakes the two (

(CNN) — A 6.7-magnitude earthquake struck off Chiles Pacific coast Sunday, the U.S. Geological Survey said.
The quakes epicenter was 60 kilometers (37 miles) west-northwest of Iquique, Chile, and its depth was 20 kilometers (12.4 miles), the USGS said.
There were no immediate reports of damages or injuries, but local emergency officials activated a precautionary tsunami warning along the coast and urged residents to move to higher ground, regional emergency official Juan Basaez told CNN Chile.
Sea level readings in the area indicate a tsunami was generated, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said, but there is no widespread destructive tsunami threat.
The center warned of possible destruction on the coast within 200 kilometers (124 miles) from the quakes epicenter.
Measuring the magnitude of earthquakes
The place where two earthquakes hit every hour

CNNs Taylor Ward and CNN en Españols Nelson Quiñones contributed to this report.

Around 525 AD he and a few monks established

The official founder of the movement was the Italian St Benedict who was not a priest but set up 12 monasteries manned by 12 monks each. Around 525 AD he and a few monks established a centre in Monte Cassino and set out the rules for monastic life which have not changed much to this day. A number of universities owe their origins to monasteries notably Paris 1100 and Oxford 1249. The Pope’s emissary St Augustine founded the Benedictine monastery at Canterbury in 597 AD.
Power Struggles between Church and King

Plus, POWER STRUGGLES BETWEEN CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS

CRUSADES

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH SPLITS BETWEEN ROME AND CONSTANTINOPLE.

1000 years ago

There were three main authorities “governing” England over the next 500 years:

The King
His Barons (eventually became a parliament after Magna Carta)
And the Church

A power struggle waxed and waned between the three. The Church under the guidance of the Archbishop of Canterbury organised the daily life of the people. A massive church building programme gave each village a parish church. A monastery to help with major capital projects was never far away.

Three other major events took place in Europe to fully establish the Christian

The writings of the Venerable Bede (written around 700AD in a monastery in Jarrow in Northumberland founded by the St Patrick movement) are a testimonial to this.(e.g. his “Ecclesiastical History of the English People”).

Three other major events took place in Europe to fully establish the Christian Church across Europe.
The Roman Byzantium Empire centred in Constantinople was not over run by the Germanic tribes as befell Rome
Pope Leo 3rd in about 800 came to a deal with the effective Emperor of Europe, Charlemagne, and crowned him Emperor of the Western Church or Holy Roman Emperor. (Charlemagne was of German stock whose court was in Aachen/Aix-la-Chapelle in the west of Germany.) On Charlemagne’s death the crown passed to the German Kings. The best remembered of course being the Habsburgs whose court was in Vienna Austria and then perhaps Charles 5th from Burgundy now in France who also became king of Spain and Naples in Italy The succession of the Holy Roman Empire remained solid until 1800 when it collapsed under Napoleon.
Perhaps the most holy, respected and useful activities of the Christian church were their monasteries which were centres for dedicated religious people to live, work and pray, generally eight times a day. They became the best brains of their day and most importantly did good works in their neighbourhood. This took the form of creating books for reading before printing was invented, teaching, the only real source of education at the time, and such things as helping local farmers with capital projects they could not afford like draining the land. The men and women who lived in monasteries took vows to spend their lives doing good works in the name of God. Marriage was disallowed for monks and nuns. The first simple monasteries were set up in Ireland by St Patrick where one of their key jobs was to make copies, by hand of course, of all the vital Christian books being rapidly destroyed by the Saxons and Vikings in England.

Some call him the father of the Christian church.

Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
Some call him the father of the Christian church. Born in Thagaste close to the North African Roman town of Carthage (modern day Tunisia) he took a Christian wife and was finally converted to Christianity by the Roman Bishop of Milan St Ambrose. As Bishop of Hippo (300 miles west of Carthage in present day Algeria) he wrote the most influential books on Christianity for more than 800 years. Of particular interest and importance to the English was his influence on the Roman Britain St Patrick who became the patron saint of Ireland who travelled to Hippo to learn from him.
Christianity comes to England

THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. THE IRISH EFFECT. SAINT PATRICK. MONASTERIES.

1500 years ago

The next milestone in the development of the Roman Christian church came in 590AD though the powerful dogma of Pope Gregory 1st More than anybody he was responsible for removing any government control over the Church. (He had to come to an agreement with the ruling race in northern Italy at the time, the Lombards of Milan, one of the Germanic tribes who assisted in the fall of the Roman Empire)
Pope Gregory sponsored his emissary Augustine to fully convert England, then ruled by the Saxons, to Christianity. This was the first organised plan to spread Christianity to England. Around the same time Irish missionaries (Columba 521-597) who had been converted to Christianity by the Irish St Patrick movement, landed on the west coast of Scotland. Both movements survived the vicious pagan Viking invasions into both England and Ireland between 800 and 1000 AD.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost the Lord giver of life, Who proceedeth from the father

And I believe in the Holy Ghost the Lord giver of life, Who proceedeth from the father and the Son, Who with the father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, Who spake by the prophets. And I believe in one Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the Resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come”. Amen

This creed lasted with very little competition for over 1000 years that is until the Reformation (circa AD 1500). However in the hundred or so years before it was agreed, the Christian church welcomed debate and intellectual speculation. The opposite would be the case as the Roman Popes fostered theological conformity. Particularly and not surprisingly, in the 2nd century there was much debate about the Holy Trinity (God, Jesus and the Holy Spirit being one and the same thing.)

The breakthrough came with the conversion of the Roman Emperor Constantine

The breakthrough came with the conversion of the Roman Emperor Constantine in AD 312 who set about making Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. Things moved quickly. Constantine changed the name of the eastern capital of the Roman Empire from Byzantium to Constantinople (After himself) and set up important religious colleges in the attractive local countryside. One by the lake called Nicaea. (Now in Turkey and called Iznik some 100 miles south east of Istanbul). From this college, the Roman Christian religious clerics produced a written document (in 325 AD) stating what Christians should believe. (It is now called the Nicaean Creed. The Latin for “I believe” is “Credo”). It is still used today as follows:
THE NICAEAN CREED
“I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible: And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten not made, Being of one substance with the Father, By whom all things were made.

Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from Heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man, And was crucified by Pontius Pilot, He suffered and was buried, And on the third day he rose again according to the scriptures, And ascended into Heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he will come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have no end.